Beginning with an outline of jewson's (1976) now classic work on 'medical cosmologies', this section will also examine foucault's social constructionist analysis of medical discourse as well as illich's equally influential notion of 'medicalisation'. We suggest that some earlier accounts of medicalisation over-emphasized the medical profession's imperialistic tendencies and often underplayed the benefits of medicine.
This critique was embodied in works such as conrad's "the discovery of hyperkinesis: notes on medicalization of deviance", published in 1973 (hyperkinesis was the term then used to describe what we might now call adhd). Thus, as we enter a post-modern era, with increased concerns over risk and a decline in the trust of expert authority, many sociologists argue that the modern day ‘consumer’ of healthcare plays an active role in bringing about or resisting medicalisation.
Medicalization is a concept that captures the processes through which medicine and medical culture categorize physical, emotional and social phenomena as normal or not-normal, and thus encroach on various aspects of social life. 2002 editorial in the british medical journal warned of inappropriate medicalization leading to disease mongering, where the boundaries of the definition of illnesses are expanded to include personal problems as medical problems or risks of diseases are emphasized to broaden the market for medications.
Nonetheless, there has been backlash against the medicalization of pregnancy and childbirth and growth in midwife deliveries as an alternative to medical supervision. 14] the diagnosis of premenstrual dysphoric disorder has caused some controversy, and psychologist peggy kleinplatz has criticized the diagnosis as medicalization of normal human behavior, that occurred while fluoxetine (also known as prozac) was being repackaged as a pmdd therapy under the trade named sarafem.
These two strands of the medicalisation thesis reflect the influence of both interactionist and marxist approaches to health and illness in that definitions of illness are perceived to derive from social interactions / negotiations that are built upon social most popular health fying and managing internal and external stakeholder ment models and theories associated with motivation, leadership and change management, and their application to practical situations and y reference values (drvs), current dietary goals, recommendations, guidelines and the evidence for n 1. 18]:1 similarly, conrad and schneider concluded their review of the medicalization of deviance by supposing that three major paradigms may be identified that have reigned over deviance designations in different historical periods: deviance as sin; deviance as crime; and deviance as sickness.
1] the term medicalization entered the sociology literature in the 1970s in the works of irving zola, peter conrad and thomas szasz, among others. He also differentiates between medicalization from above (coercion) and medicalization from below (choice), reflecting again his concern for ever diminishing personal freedoms.
Medicalization is a concept that captures the processes through which medicine and medical culture categorize physical, emotional, and social phenomena as normal or not-normal. The authors noted:Inappropriate medicalisation carries the dangers of the unnecessary labelling, poor treatment decisions, iatrogenic illness, and economic waste, as well as the opportunity costs that result when resources are diverted away from treating or preventing more serious disease.
Many contemporary critics position pharmaceutical companies in the space once held by doctors as the supposed catalysts of medicalization. However, these authors took the view that increasingly sophisticated technology had extended the potential reach of medicalization as a form of social control, especially in terms of "psychotechnology" (chorover,1973).
Such a change allows the medicalization process as one of negotiation rather than as undisputed dominance and social lization, l to the concept of medicalization is the idea that medicine is an institution of social control whose primary function is to deal with illness as a form of social deviance. The 1975 book limits to medicine: medical nemesis (1975), ivan illich put forth one of the earliest uses of the term "medicalization".
To franco basaglia and his followers, whose approach pointed out the role of psychiatric institutions in the control and medicalization of deviant behaviors and social problems, psychiatry is used as the provider of scientific support for social control to the existing establishment, and the ensuing standards of deviance and normality brought about repressive views of discrete social groups. Medicalization can be driven by new evidence or hypotheses about conditions; by changing social attitudes or economic considerations; or by the development of new medications or lization is studied from a sociologic perspective in terms of the role and power of professionals, patients, and corporations, and also for its implications for ordinary people whose self-identity and life decisions may depend on the prevailing concepts of health and illness.
Menstruation and pregnancy had come to be seen as medical problems requiring interventions such as ts such as vicente navarro (1980) linked medicalization to an oppressive capitalist society. Medicalisation thesis illich's (1976) 'medicalisation of life' thesis is a radical critique of biomedicine & the medical profession which went on to become highly influential in the 1980s.
The emergence of the modern day consumer not only raises questions about the notion of medicalisation as a uni-dimensional concept, but also requires consideration of the specific social contexts in which medicalisation occurs. In both a preface and introduction, szasz comments on the term medicalization and what it means 's key argument is that social groups seeking to exercise power and control subvert the diagnostic process, resulting in the treatment of non-disease as disease.
First, medicalization is related to the political economy of health, in which good health (in capitalist societies) is viewed as a resource, as well as a state of being. Central to the concept of medicalization is the idea that all knowledge, including scientific and medical knowledge, is a social product, developed through processes of interpretation and negotiation that play a critical role in evaluating and legitimizing medicalization medicalization thesis emerged primarily in the 1970s as a way of explaining the expansion of modern medicine and its apparent ever-increasing reach into corners of social life.
Finally, while medicalization processes are not without conflict, medicalization is increasingly driven forward by the pharmaceutical ds: deviance; diagnosis; functionalism; medicalization; political economy of health; sick role; social constructionism; social lization is central to the idea that medicine is an institution of social control. Medicalization and paramedicalization can sometimes be contradictory and conflicting, but they also feed each other: they both ensure that questions of health and illness stay in sharp focus in defining human conditions and problems.